Transnational organized crime is established as the national security and international security threat. There are many activities of various types, such as smugglings-drugs, and many more are associated with transnational organized crime. There are perpetrators (a person who carries out a harmful, illegal, or immoral act.) organized criminals for such crimes.
The perpetrators can be distributors, salesman, retailers, wholesalers, producers, financier, exporters-importers, etc. some times in such crimes the upper world also supports such crimes such as corrupt police officers, politicians, judges, officers, bankers, etc. due to increasing rate of transnational organized crime some of the departments such as local, national- international law, security bodies, are continuously challenged. Due to this crime, not only the criminal networks expanding, but there are explosive and destabilizing effects as well. TOC has become the global problem- it has manifested itself in various/ different regions in different ways.
Threats due to transnational organized crime are
· Threats to the economy
· Crime-terror-insurgency nexus
· Expansion of drug trafficking
· Human smuggling
· Trafficking in persons
· Weapons trafficking
· Intellectual property theft
· The critical role of facilitators
Threats in brief:
· Threats of the economy: TOC can cause significant damage to the world's financial system. The damage can be caused due to exploitation, distortion of markets, economic activity, etc. there can be a huge disadvantage by TOC and corruption. The activities are taking place through TOC lead to disruption of the global supply chain and its effects on the countries' economy rate.
· Crime-terror-insurgency-nexus: Terrorists and insurgents increasingly are turning to TOC to generate funding and acquire logistical support to carry out their violent acts.
· Expansion of drug trafficking: the drugs are injuries to health as we all are aware of the fact then also in recent years, particularly against cocaine trade, illicit drugs remain a serious threat to the health, security, safety, and financial well-being.
· Human smugglings: It is a criminal, commercial transaction between willing parties who go their separate ways once they have procured illegal entry into a country. International human smuggling networks are linked to other transnational crimes, including drug trafficking and the corruption of government officials. They can move criminals, fugitives, terrorists, and trafficking victims, as well as economic migrants. They undermine the sovereignty of nations and often endanger the lives of those being smuggled.
· Weapons trafficking: black markets from here only the terrorist procure their weapons. Illicit arms trafficking can be said as gunrunning as well.
· Cybercrime: the crime involves a computer and a network to commit a crime is a cybercrime. The computer can be a target or can be used for the execution of the crime. Crimes that use computer networks to commit other crimes. Types of crime include financial fraud, theft, stalking, etc. the cybercrime has its terrorism, extortion, warfare, internet fraud, cyberstalking, etc.
To fights such crimes as a transnational organized crime, there are some international frameworks as:
· Improve data with a trust fund for independent research.
· Draw on lessons from anti- terrorism efforts.
· Anti-money laundering regulations.
· Support evidence-based drug policy.
· Combat criminal impunity.
BBA.LLB 2ND YEAR
INDORE INSTITUTE OF LAW, INDORE